Today 15 April 2021, Thursday - Last updated at 14 April 2021
babasının taş gibi bir kadını bulup evlenmeye karar vermesi porno ve onu bir de kendi yaşadıkları eve getirmesi sonucunda mobil porno hayalini kurduğu seksi kadının üvey annesi gibi sex hikayeleri olduğunu fark eden genç adam seks tecrübesinin ve üst sex izle seviye olduğu dışarıdan bakıldığında çok net şekilde porno seyret belli olan üvey annesini hayal edip 31 çekerek düşlerken porno izle odanın oradan geçen mature üvey oğlunu görür Odaya hd porno gelip sikini kimin için kaldırdığını soran üvey annesiyle porno farkında olmadan yakınlaşan genç adam boşalmak mobil porno izle için olgun bir kadının hayallerini kurduğunu söyleyince mature porno izle sikini eline alıp amına sokmadan çıplak şekilde üzerine çıktı
Abonamente

News 11 February 2015, at 12:38

Moldova’s Security Options following Russian Aggression in Ukraine

Marime Font

Russian takeover of Crimea and consequent aggression in eastern Ukraine have changed regional security perceptions in Europe and worldwide

Eastern European members of NATO receive constant assurances from their Western allies about the security of NATO’s eastern borders. Meanwhile, neutral states, like Moldova that lack similar guarantees, face severe defense vulnerabilities, and, therefore, have to rethink their national security strategies.

Republic of Moldova has employed a policy of neutrality since the early 90’s, but it has been ignored by the Russian Federation ever since. Moscow still keeps a military presence in Moldova despite the sovereign will of Chisinau. In the new geopolitical context, Moldova is forced to review its national security options. Thus, we propose a comparative analysis of three alternatives to the current status quos: a) joining NATO; b) joining CSTO; c) setting up a new regional defense framework. We suggest the following set of criteria: a) degree of security; b) cost; c) technical and administrative feasibility; and d) social and political feasibility.


Analysis shows that the third option is the most feasible and has the best chance of ensuring a higher degree of security for Moldova. Therefore, we recommend that Moldovan Parliament and Government further examine and implement the third option.

Moldova’s Defense Vulnerability: Background

Moldova’s neutrality status was imposed by the circumstances at the time of the USSR collapse. Russia, being the legal follower of the Soviet Union, could not come to terms with the new realities and tried to maintain the former soviet republics in its sphere of influence. As soon as Moldova became independent, a separatist movement erupted in Transnistria, where Russian troops are still stationed, despite Kremlin’s international commitments for withdrawal. Thus, Moldova’s neutrality not only failed to compel Russia to evacuate its military assets, but also increased Moldova’s vulnerability, making the country an easy target to internal and external threats. That is why the current neutrality status is ineffective in providing security.

Given Moldova’s limited economic potential, the country struggles to maintain its defense capabilities. It only allocates 0.3% of its GDP for military purposes, which amounts to about 25 million dollars per year. Furthermore, Moldova presents limited interest to the West. Its strategic and economic importance is negligible. To make things worse, Moldova is highly dependent on Russian energy supplies, export and labor markets. Russian media control a significant share of Moldova’s informational space. Finally, Kremlin has been instrumental in using Russian speaking minorities in Moldova to advocate interest that often go against the will of the majority of the local population. Yet, in spite of all these difficulties, Moldova strives to join the European Union and has already been granted a visa free regime with the EU. However, one should not forget that EU continues to be a military dwarf, despite being an economic giant. Thus, even if Moldova were to join the EU in the foreseeable future, its security dilemma would still have to be addressed. Most local and European experts say that, in fact, Moldova will first have to solve its security problems before it can possibly join the European family of nations.

Policy Alternatives for Boosting Moldovan Security

Maintaining neutrality in its current form is nothing but perpetuating a vulnerable status quo that has proven to be ineffective in safeguarding national security. Thus, either neutrality is strengthened through international guarantees or it becomes obsolete. Seeing that there are hardly any powers willing to grant Moldova such guarantees, Moldova needs to consider renouncing its ineffective neutrality status and enter a military block or at least set up a new regional security framework. We shall scrutinize these proposals using the following evaluating criteria:

a) Degree of security – how effective the option is in providing security.

b) Cost – how expensive each of these options is compared to each other.

c) Technical and administrative feasibility – how much of a technological and administrative effort is required;

d) Social and political feasibility – extent to which voters and officials would support the option.

NATO – High Degree of Security, yet not Easily Attainable

Joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is, no doubt, a very effective alternative as it would guarantee the higher level of security. It provides the highest degree of security, but this option is extremely difficult, as long as most voters in Moldova still perceive NATO through the lenses of Soviet and Russian propaganda and only about 30% support joining NATO. In addition, NATO has a strict set of accession criteria, and requires unanimous consent of all member states, which makes this option technically and administratively difficult. In order for NATO accession to become a feasible option, Moldova needs to minimize its dependence on Russia, boost its economic potential in order to afford to spend at least 2% of GDP on defense. It is, therefore, clear that joining NATO is not a feasible option for the short and medium term, due in part to the large social and, thus, political opposition to this path.

CSTO – Easily Attainable, but Questionable Security

Joining the Russian version of NATO, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, is a relatively simple undertaking as there are no strict accession criteria or large costs, but the security it provides is questionable to say the least. The notion of a Russian security umbrella is, obviously, highly contested; given that Russian is the sole cause of many security challenges. The majority of the population would, therefore, reject this option right away, but the Russian speaking minority may certainly welcome it. Hence, this option remains theoretically on the table as long as there are political forces that might consider this alternative if they were to accede to power. Also, should the pro western parties renounce neutrality and embark on a NATO membership track, pro Russian parties will, most certainly, push for the CSTO alternative. In order to lay out all the major options and avoid accusations of bias, we need to address this option as well.

New Regional Security Mechanism – Reasonable Compromise

In light of major shortcomings of the first two options, a less ambitious alternative becomes all the more feasible. A new regional defense cooperation framework, similar to NORDEFCO (Nordic Defense Cooperation) seems a reasonable compromise. Neutral states, such as Sweden and Finland, while strengthening their cooperation with NATO, are also enhancing regional defense cooperation. NORDEFCO was founded in 2009 by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in order to strengthen defense capabilities and explore joint synergies of member states.This mechanism is a vivid example of how relatively small military powers, also challenged by Russia, can pool their resources together in the face of common threats. Similarly, countries such as Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, as well as Poland, Romania and others that feel threatened by Russia could set up a regional mechanism of defense cooperation to address common challenges to national and regional security. Financial, administrative and technical costs are considerably less that in the case of joining NATO, as there would be no strict accession criteria, while, social and political resistance would be minor because the commitment would only go as far as the voters and politicians themselves decide. Hence, building a new security platform appears to be the only reasonable compromise that would provide a higher level of security with acceptable internal and external costs.

Conclusion and Recommendations

After comparing the three options, it becomes evident that building a regional security mechanism is the only realistic way to provide a higher level of security for Moldova. The third option is not only cost effective, but is also administratively, technically, politically and socially feasible. It is, thus, imperative to start a broad dialogue with countries in the region, both at inter-governmental and civil society levels. The new security mechanism can boost defense capabilities of participating countries at a smaller commonly agreed cost (less than 2% of GDP), yet with a considerable and lasting impact. Therefore, we recommend that:

Moldovan Parliament and Government work with partners in the region (Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Romania, Poland, etc.) towards setting up a new regional defense cooperation structure.

The country’s leadership should encourage the expert community and civil society to engage partners in the region to further develop the proposal and build public support across the area.

Parliament and Government should seek international technical assistance and best practices based on NORDEFCO experience.

Sursa: moldovanpolitics.com

 Urmărește știrile Timpul.md pe Telegram
blog comments powered by Disqus

Din aceeaşi secţiune

Cele mai noi ştiri de azi

News 14 April 2021, ora: 09:08

Reuters Biden proposes summit with Putin amid tensions over Ukraine

Biden proposes summit with Putin amid tensions over Ukraine

 U.S. President Joe Biden proposed a summit meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin during a telephone call on Tuesday in which he stressed the U.S. commitment to Ukraine's territorial integrity and voiced concern about a Russian military build-up in Crimea and on Ukraine's borders,...

( ) Read all

News 22 March 2021, ora: 12:28

EBRD seeks to safeguard operations of Moldova’s Giurgiulesti port

EBRD seeks to safeguard operations of Moldova’s Giurgiulesti port

 The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is enforcing rights under its financing and security documents with regards to Danube Logistics Holding BV’s shareholding in Danube Logistics SRL (Danube Logistics), the operator of Giurgiulesti International Free Port in the...

( ) Read all

News 5 March 2021, ora: 10:48

European Business Association: Tne actions against Danube Logistics SRL have the goal of expropriation of the current shareholders of their investment

European Business Association: Tne actions against  Danube Logistics SRL  have the goal of expropriation of the current shareholders of their investment

 EBA Moldova is following with great concern the latest developments regarding Danube Logistics SRL, the owner and operator of Giurgiulesti International Free Port, the only port of the Republic of Moldova.

( ) Read all

News 3 March 2021, ora: 09:15

EBRD will appeal imposed external administration of assets of Moldova’s Danube Logistics SRL

EBRD will appeal imposed external administration of assets of Moldova’s Danube Logistics SRL Din editia print

 The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) intends to fight a legal decision to impose external administration over the assets of Danube Logistics SRL, the operator of Giurgiulesti International Free Port in Moldova.

( ) Read all

News 22 February 2021, ora: 12:19

Baltic states warn EU on China and Russia espionage

Baltic states warn EU on China and Russia espionage

 Lithuania has banned a Chinese tech firm on security grounds, while Estonia warned the EU on the dangers of both Chinese and Russian espionage.

( ) Read all

News 21 December 2020, ora: 09:26

Local roads bring greater connectivity and support to rural communities in Moldova

Local roads bring greater connectivity and support to rural communities in Moldova

One August day in the mid-1960s, my parents boarded a bus in the village of Hartopul Mare in the center of Moldova to travel to the capital Chisinau, determined to get a better education and better jobs in the Soviet planned economy. It was a 90-minute trip in a vehicle packed with about 50...

( ) Read all

News 4 December 2020, ora: 09:48

Moldova: Statement by the Spokesperson on the latest legislative proposals

Moldova: Statement by the Spokesperson on the latest legislative proposals

 On Thursday 3 December, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova voted on a number of legislative proposals, including on limitations of Presidential powers, tabled in a hasty and non-transparent manner.

( ) Read all

News 23 November 2020, ora: 12:34

7 dead in Russia for drinking hand sanitizer after running out of liquor — reports

7 dead in Russia for drinking hand sanitizer after running out of liquor — reports

 Seven people died from methanol (wood alcohol) poisoning after drinking hand sanitizer at a party in Russia. Nine people, with ages ranging from 27 to 69 years old, were partying when they opted to drink hand sanitizer after running out of alcoholic beverages, according to local Russian...

( ) Read all

News 1 November 2020, ora: 06:40

Danube Logistics: Chisinau Appeals Court declares Bemol's actions against Danube Logistics unlawful

Danube Logistics: Chisinau Appeals Court declares Bemol's actions against Danube Logistics unlawful

 The Chisinau Appeals Court has declared Bemol's actions against Danube Logistics unlawful, according to a press release of Danube Logistics SRL and Danube Logistics Holding BV.

( ) Read all

News 3 October 2020, ora: 20:41

Dainius Žalimas The decision of the Constitutional Court of Belarus is an arbitrary act

The decision of the  Constitutional Court of Belarus is an arbitrary act

 On 25 August 2020 the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Belarus (thereinafter – the CCRB) adopted a document entitled the “Constitutional Legal Position on the Protection of the Constitutional Order” (Kонституционно-правовaя позиция по...

( ) Read all

News 21 September 2020, ora: 08:07

FinCEN Files: Deutsche Bank tops list of suspicious transactions

FinCEN Files: Deutsche Bank tops list of suspicious transactions

Leaked documents shed a light on Deutsche Bank's central role in facilitating financial transactions deemed suspicious. Many of these could have enabled the circumvention of sanctions on Iran and Russia.

( ) Read all

News 8 September 2020, ora: 09:11

How the Red Terror set a macabre course for the Soviet Union

How the Red Terror set a macabre course for the Soviet Union

In 1918, the Bolshevik regime launched a state-sanctioned campaign of mass killings and detentions to silence political enemies—laying the foundation for decades of violence in the U.S.S.R.

( ) Read all

News 4 September 2020, ora: 22:58

Lithuania to sanction Belarus’ Constitutional Court officials

Lithuania to sanction Belarus’ Constitutional Court officials

 Lithuania may impose national sanctions on officials from the Belarusian Constitutional Court, Lithuanian President Gitanas Nausėda said on Thursday.

( ) Read all

News 26 August 2020, ora: 10:54

How Romania is Handling Cybersecurity Threats

How Romania is Handling Cybersecurity Threats

In 2013, Romania approved a national cybersecurity strategy and began its implementation. It wasn't the only EU country to take action. 

( ) Read all
Current tier / breakpoint: xs sm md lg xl (= visible only on this breakpoint)

.hidden-xs-down .hidden-sm-down .hidden-md-down .hidden-lg-down

.hidden-xs-up .hidden-sm-up .hidden-md-up .hidden-lg-up .hidden-xl

.hidden-xs (only) .hidden-sm (only) .hidden-md (only) .hidden-lg (only) .hidden-xl (only)